See CMS 9.21–9.26 for guidance on referring to amounts of money in text.

Spell out currencies in text unless the currency is being used with a numeric amount or in a foreign exchange relationship. See the Location Standards Excel file for a list of currency names by country.

Examples: for US-dollar-based investors; the yen fell in 1991; the German mark was strong until conversion to the euro. The USD/JPY rate was erratic during this period.

Use of Currency Symbols

For numeric amounts, use the symbols for currencies (e.g., $5, £2,000, ¥10,000).

Use a dollar sign for dollars but the word “cents” for cents. Do not hyphenate a numeric amount and the word “cent” (e.g., 50 cent cigar).

When needed, the historical symbols for eurozone G–7 countries are as follows: Italy = L, France = Fr, and Germany = DM. Note that the preferred form of German currency from reunification to introduction of the euro is “the German mark” rather than the “deutsche mark.”

Minus signs (en dashes) and parentheses representing a negative currency amount go outside the currency symbol.

Example: –US$250; –C$500; (€1,223)

Currency symbols (€, $, ¥, SFr, HK$) are closed up with the amounts following them. For amounts in millions, billions, and so on, use one space between the symbol and the word (e.g., US$ billions, SFr millions).

To indicate an exchange rate, such as the US dollar to the Japanese yen, use words (e.g., dollar/yen) or use symbols (e.g., $/¥) if symbols are being used throughout the publication or the foreign exchange abbreviations (e.g., USD/JPY) as explained in the next section.

Foreign Exchange Abbreviations

For a publication that makes extensive use of international currencies and foreign exchange rates, the editors may choose to use the foreign exchange (FX) abbreviations instead of currency symbols. A complete list can be found at Examples are as follows:

CAD = Canadian dollar
CHF = Swiss franc
EUR = euro
GBP = British pound
JPY = Japanese yen
USD = US dollar

In publications that use the FX abbreviations throughout, for numeric currency amounts, use the FX abbreviation closed up with the amount.

Examples: EUR5,000, USD900, JPY40 million

En dashes are used to denote a span in currency except when words are used—usually, “million” or “billion.” (See also “Numbers, Inclusive amounts.”)

Example: $5–$10 but $5 million to $10 million; €65–€105 but €65 billion to €105 billion; CHF300–CHF3,000 but CHF1.3 million to CHF3.0 million

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