Formatting Source Line and Footnote

Source lines in tables and figures follow footnote style. Footnote style basically differs from reference/bibliography style as follows:

  • First name of first author comes first.
  • Commas are used for most periods.
  • Years are given in the parentheses just before page numbers.

Use the following formats for the first mention of a work:


Tom Copeland, Tim Koller, and Jack Murrin, Valuation: Measuring and Managing the Value of Companies, 2nd ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996).

Philip Hans Franses, Time Series Models for Business and Economic Forecasting (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Forthcoming book

Martin S. Fridson and Fernando Alvarez, Financial Statement Analysis: A Practitioner’s Guide, 3rd ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons: forthcoming 2002).

Part of book

William Jones, “Introduction,” in Problems in Industrial Development, edited by John Dune, 1–2 (Chicago: Universal Press, 1885).

Part of CFA Institute book

Michael Philips, “New Directions,” in The Future of Portfolios, 15–23(Charlottesville, VA: Association for Investment Management and Research, 1999).

Corporate author (book)

Ibbotson Associates, Stocks, Bonds, Bills, and Inflation: 2004 Yearbook (Chicago: Ibbotson Associates, 2004).

ABI, Investing in Social Responsibility: Risks and Opportunities, ABI Research Report. London: Association of British Insurers.

Corporate author (pamphlet)

Standard & Poor’s, “Identifying Ratings Triggers and Other Contingent Calls on Liquidity—Part 2” (15 May 2002).

NIRI, “NIRI Releases Survey: An Analysis of Corporate Use of Pro Forma Reporting,” press release, National Investor Relations Institute (17 January 2002).

Corporate newsletter (with author)

Solomon B. Samson, “Identifying Ratings Triggers and Other Contingent Calls on Liquidity—Part 2,” Standard & Poor’s (15 May 2002).

Forthcoming paper

Thomas K. Philips, “The Source of Value,” Journal of Portfolio Management (forthcoming).

Government/legal publications

“Order Execution Obligations,” Exchange Act Release 37619 (6 September 1996).


Chuck Auerbach, “Time and Tide Wait for No Man,” Impatience 1 (Spring 1992): 224–26.

Robert C. Merton, “An Intertemporal Capital Asset Pricing Model,” Econometrica 41 (September 1973): 867–87.

Richard Bookstaber and David P. Jacob, “The Composite Hedge,” Financial Analysts Journal 42 (March/April 1986): 25–36.

[Note: This form is appropriate if short-hand style is being used.]

Chuck Auerbach, “Time and Tide Wait for No Man,” Impatience (Spring 1992): 224–26.

Andrew Tobias, “How to Invest in Uncertain Times,” Parade (18 February 2001).

No author

“The 300 Best Small Companies,” Forbes Global (30 October 2000).


Ben Stein, “Can We Win?” Presentation given at the CFA Institute Improving Portfolio Performance conference, Chicago (30 November–1 December 2000).

Scott McNally, Java One Conferences, Valley Hills, CA (17 June 1999).

Reprinted material

Martin L. Leibowitz, “Total Portfolio Duration: A New Perspective on Asset Allocation,” Financial Analysts Journal 42 (September/October 1986): 18–29, 77; reprinted in 1995.

If the later date is important because page numbers are given in the text reference (e.g., for a quotation), use:

Martin L. Leibowitz, “Total Portfolio Duration: A New Perspective on Asset Allocation.” Financial Analysts Journal 51 (January/February 1995 50th Anniversary Issue): 139–41; first published 1986.

Unpublished papers (working papers, mimeos, dissertations, and other unpublished manuscripts)

John Doe, “Statistics for Dummies,” mimeo (University of Dogpatch, 1995).

Hersh Shefrin and Meir Statman, “Behavioral Portfolio Theory,” working paper (Santa Clara University, 1994).

Jon Simple, “Firm Management,” Working Paper 100, New York University (1999).

For subsequent references to a work in source lines and footnotes, use the author’s last name and the short title: Auerbach, “Time and Tide.” If no author, use short title: e.g., “The 300 Best Small Companies.”

Short Citations

In some publications, you may need to use short in-line reference information to avoid the separate notes or references section for space reasons. For a book, provide in parentheses basic information that is not given in the sentence. For example, if the authors only are cited, give the title, publisher, and date in parentheses. If the authors and title are cited, give the publisher and date in parentheses. For a journal article, basic information that needs to be either cited in the sentence or given in the parentheses consists of author, title, name of journal, and year of publication.